Waste management in Russia
Waste management in Russia
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation has estimated that around 60 million metric tons of MSW (Municipal solid waste) is generated each year, amounting to more than 400 kg per capita. The volume of MSW in Russia has been steadily increasing in recent years. The volume of waste does not as such constitute the problem; instead, the problem arises from the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and protecting the environment. There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, and health of people, and thus has an impact on the quality of their lives. As a consequence, improper disposal or storage of waste can cause hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and, especially, water.
Over 25 million tons of waste is produced each year in Moscow. This includes bulk waste, residential solid waste, industrial and construction site waste as well as waste from water treatment facilities. A large proportion of this is stored and disposed of at waste processing facilities. However, the facilities are nearly packet to capacity. It is thus important for Moscow and the surrounding region to take concerted action to solve the waste management problem. This is a notably complex issue concerning more than 20 different industries. The whole chain of waste management includes collection, transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products.
CLOSING A LANDFILL
The landfill is the most popularly used method of waste disposal today. This process of waste disposal focuses attention on burying the waste underground. Huge amounts of pollution result from the assortment of chemicals thrown into landfills as well as the chemicals that emerge as garbage breaks down and blends into a toxic soup known as leachate. Leachate can drain out of a landfill and contaminate groundwater supplies. Landfills also cause another problem by taking up lots of space. Loose or non-baled materials require a tremendous amount of space compared to baled waste.
Our method of baling and wrapping could help the Moscow region when closing down old landfills and transporting MSW in a compact form to a new disposal place. New facilities must be set up before we can close down the old dump sites and restore the land. In the future, there might come a point where the accumulated waste will be processed.
A dry landfill looks like industrial facilities, clean and well-maintained. Therefore, the proximity of one does not cause negative reactions among the residents of nearby villages. After laying bricks, landfills can be used as parks, golf courses, areas for physical exercise activities, etc. Bales wrapped in film are devoid of most moisture and oxygen. The formation of biogas (methane) is a source of some unpleasant smell, as there are factors of high density and a virtual absence of oxygen and moisture. Since the waste decomposition process takes a number of decades, the landfill can be seen as a stable source of biogas.
WHY USE SQUARE BALES?
Baling and wrapping are by far the best solution for handling large volumes of packaging waste. Storage space can also be kept to a minimum with highly-compacted bales and they can be transported cost-effectively. Square bales can be formed more efficiently than round bales. Therefore, disposing of solid waste in a landfill allows reducing the size and adjusting the moisture of the solid waste and placing the waste in a preselected geometric form – a square. The pre-seal significantly improves the efficiency of transportation: high-density bales can be easily transported in a common platform truck. This technology also allows stacking bales to achieve a smooth and uniform surface, which simplifies the operation of piling layers of soil on top, while at the same time reducing the needed amount. Primer is required 10 times less than normally.
Cross Wrap bale wrapping systems have produced millions of secure, odor-free wrapped MSW bales. Wrapped Cross Wrap bales are a ‘good neighbour’, reject rainwater and can be stored outside without a concern for odors or being too attractive to birds. When placed in a balefill, Cross Wrap bales can prevent the need for daily cover. Bale compaction and close stacking of square bales can result in landfill space savings of 20%, greatly increasing landfill life. These balers equipped with wrappers are used to wrap bales of various types of waste with plastic film. The wrapped bales can be stored in open areas. They can be left outside even for longer periods of time without any problems with leachate or odors, as these are contained within the plastic film. Birds, rats and vermin are not attracted to the waste. The use of wrapping eliminates wind spread of volatile waste such as paper and plastics and eliminates the threat of fire debris.
Written by Cross Wrap Regional Director for Russia & CIS Mrs. Ljuba Stepanova